Diagnosing and treating neuroendocrine tumors is complicated because of extreme variation in tumor behavior and subtypes. Read more...

NET cancer is classified as a rare disease, but recent studies have shown that the incidence is growing and that it affects many sites in the body. Read more...

The World Health Organization now emphasizes the distinction between well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (WD-NET) and poorly-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (PD-NEC). They differ vastly in tumor biology, clinical presentation, therapy and prognosis. Read more...

The presentation of NETs ranges from no symptoms to profound symptoms. Because symptoms are often vague gastrointestinal or respiratory symptoms, patients are often misdiagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome, reflux, imflammatory bowel disease, menopause, rosacea or asthma. Read more...

Diagnostics Biomarkers, Imaging

A high index of suspicion is the most important step toward making a diagnosis of NET, but there are many serum and urine markers that are used to refine the diagnosis. Both anatomical and functional imaging techniques are important for the workup of NETs. Read more about biomarkers or read more about imaging...

Many treatment options for NETs have emerged. Their use depends on a careful weighing of risks and benefits and the variant of disease.

Biotherapy with somatostatin analogs is the maintstay maintenance treatment. Chemotherapy is used in aggresive malignancy. Molecularly targeted agents are beneficial in treating well-differentiated NETs. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with 177Lu-DOTATATE, approved in 2018, delivers internal, targeted radiation. Find more...

For NETs, relatively early surgical intervention is encouraged to prevent complications. External beam radiation can treat localized metastases and localized tumors deeper in the body. Liver-directed therapies have been developed because 90% of patients with malignant disease will develop liver metastases. Find more...

Physicians who are not highly experienced with NETs may effectively manage NET patient care by engaging a knowledgeable team, having a commitment to being current in the field, and seeking consultation when appropriate. The importance of a multidisciplinary care team cannot be overstated. Read more…

Over the course of the treatment period, patients will be making treatment decisions that are often less than clear-cut and for which they will rely heavily on the judgment of their physician. Establishing a trusting relationship is imperative in NET patient care, and establishing effective communication is a cornerstone of that trust. Read more...

Lung NETs represent at least 25% of all NETs. Small cell lung cancer, a type of neuroendocrine carcinoma, accounts for approximately 20% of lung cancers. Read more...

Carcinoid heart disease (CaHD) is a consequence of the effects of excess hormone production (usually from liver metastases of small intestinal NET). Read more...